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The IPA

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June 12, 2008, 14:47
goofy
The IPA
The International Phonetic Alphabet was developed as a standard for the phonetic representation of all languages.

For the IPA to display on your computer, you need the Charis SIL or Doulos SIL font. Further detailed information can be found on this tutorial.


The University of Victoria has a great page where you can listen to a recording of every sound.


The consonant chart



The consonant characters are arranged by place of articulation, voicing, and manner of articulation. It helps to be familiar with the terms for the parts of the tongue and the oral cavity. Here is a labeled diagram. Here is another.

Place of articulation refers to the place in the mouth where the sound is articulated, moving from the lips on the left side, to the glottis (vocal cords) on the right.

Voicing refers to the action of the vocal cords. In voiceless sounds, the vocal cords are held apart. In voiced sounds, the vocal cords are held together so that they vibrate as the air passes between them. You can feel the difference by putting your hand to your throat while saying /s/ (a voiceless sound) and /z/ (a voiced sound). With /z/, you should feel your vocal cords vibrating.

Manner of articulation refers to how the consonant is produced. There are two general categories: obstruent and sonorant. Obstruents have restriction of the airflow in the oral cavity, and sonorants have no restriction.

Obstruents are further categorized into plosives, nasals, and fricatives.

plosive (also called stop): the airflow is completely stopped, for instance /t/
nasal: the airflow is stopped in the oral cavity, but air flows through the nasal cavity: /n/. Nasals are usually voiced.
fricative: the airflow is restricted but not stopped: /s/


Description of some of the plosives, nasals and fricatives, with examples

bilabial: made with both lips
/p/ voiceless biabial plosive: English pip [pɪp]
/b/ voiced bilabial plosive: English ebb [ɛb]
/m/ voiced bilabial nasal: English mum [mʌm]
/ɸ/ voiceless bilabial fricative: Japanese fuji [ɸɯdʑi] "Fuji"
/β/ voiced bilabial fricative: Spanish haba [aβa] "bean"

Listen to bilabial fricatives in Ewe and Venda.


labiodental: the lower lip touches the upper teeth

/f/ voiceless labiodental fricative: English fun [fʌn]
/v/ voiced labiodental fricative: English vim [vɪm]


dental: the tip or blade of the tongue touches the teeth (the blade is the area immediately behind the tip)
/θ/ voiceless dental fricative: English thing [θɪŋ]
/ð/ voiced dental fricative: English that [ðæt]


alveolar: the tip or blade of the tongue touches the alveolar ridge (the area just behind the teeth)
/t/ voiceless alveolar plosive: English tot [tɑt]
/d/ voiced alveolar plosive: English add [æd]
/n/ voiced alveolar nasal: English nun [nʌn]
/s/ voiceless alveolar fricative: English suss [sʌs]
/z/ voiced alveolar fricative: English zoo [zu]


palato-alveolar or postalveolar: the blade of the tongue is close to the alveolar ridge and the forward part of the hard palate
/ʃ/ voiceless palato-alveolar fricative: English shush [ʃʌʃ]
/ʒ/ voiced palato-alveolar fricative: English azure [æʒɚ]

English has 2 palato-alveolar affricates - a plosive followed by a homorganic fricative (that is, a fricative at the same place of articulation).
/tʃ/ voiceless palato-alveolar affricate: English church [tʃɚtʃ]
/dʒ/ voiced palato-alveolar affricate: English judge [dʒʌdʒ]


retroflex: the underside of the tongue touches the border of the alveolar ridge and the hard palate
/ʈ/ voiceless retroflex plosive: Hindi [ʈəmɑʈər] "tomato"
/ɖ/ voiced retroflex plosive: Hindi [ɖal] "branch"
/ɳ/ voiced retroflex nasal: Malayalam [kʌɳɳi] "link in chain"
Listen to retroflex stops in Hindi and retroflex nasals in Malayalam.


palatal: the front of the tonɡue touches the hard palate (note that what is called the "front" of the tongue is really the middle of the tongue)
/c/ voiceless palatal plosive: Hungarian tyúk [cuːk] "hen"
/ɟ/ voiced palatal plosive: Hungarian gyújt [ɟuit] "he ignites"
/ɲ/ voiced palatal nasal: Spanish año [aɲo] "year", French signe [siɲ] "sign"
/ç/ voicless palatal fricative: German ich [ɪç] "I", Greek [çɛɾi] "hand"
/ʝ/ voiced palatal fricative: Greek [ʝɛɾi] "old men"
Listen to palatals in Hungarian.

velar: the back of the tongue touches the velum (the soft palate)
/k/ voiceless velar plosive: English kick [kɪk]
/g/ voiced velar plosive: English egg [ɛɡ]
/ŋ/ voiced velar nasal: English singing [sɪŋɪŋ], Wangurri [ŋamaʔ] "mother"
/x/ voiceless velar fricative: German nach [nax] "towards", Greek [xɔma] "soil"
/ɣ/ voiced velar fricative: Spanish vega [beɣa] "plain, meadow", Greek [ɣɔma] "eraser"
Listen to palatal and velar fricatives in Greek.


uvular: the back of the tonge touches the uvula
/q/ voiceless uvular plosive: Quechua [qan] "you"
/ ɴ/ voiced uvular nasal: Japanese [zeɴ] "zen"
/χ/ voiceless uvular fricative: Hebrew (Oriental dialect) [maχar] "he sold"
/ʁ/ voiced uvular fricative: standard French roue [ʁu] "wheel"
Listen to uvulars and pharyngeals in Hebrew.


pharyngeal: the root of the tongue is pulled back so it approaches the pharyngeal wall
/ħ/ voiceless pharynɡeal fricative: Arabic [ħaːl] "condition", Hebrew (Oriental dialect) [laħ] "humid"
/ʕ/ voiced pharynɡeal approximant: Arabic [ʕaːl] "fine", Hebrew (Oriental dialect) [naʕ] "moved"

Since it seems that complete closure cannot be made at this point of articulation, there are no pharyngeal plosives.

Listen to uvulars and pharyngeals in Hebrew.


glottal: a closure or semi-closure is made by the vocal cords
/ʔ/ voiceless glottal plosive: English uh-uh [ʔʌ̃ʔʌ̃] "no", Tagalog [kaʔoˑn] "fetch"
/h/ voiceless glottal fricative: English hey [hej]

Although the glottal stop is not considered a phoneme of English, it often occurs at the beginning of words that start with a vowel. In Estuary English, /t/ is often replaced by a glottal stop before a consonant or at the end of words.

Listen to glottal consonants in Gimi.

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
June 12, 2008, 23:51
neveu
quote:
Place of articulation refers to the place in the mouth where the sound is articulated

What does it mean to be articulated? Can a sound be articulated in more than one place?
June 13, 2008, 05:50
zmježd
What does it mean to be articulated?

From the Wikipedia article (link) on place of articulation:
quote:
In articulatory phonetics, the place of articulation (also point of articulation) of a consonant is the point of contact, where an obstruction occurs in the vocal tract between an active (moving) articulator (typically some part of the tongue) and a passive (stationary) articulator (typically some part of the roof of the mouth).

Can a sound be articulated in more than one place?

Yes. There is a a group of sounds in languages which are articulated in two places at the same time. This is called secondary articulation or coarticulation; see the end of the same article (link). Two of them, labialization (e.g., [kʷ] as in quick /kʷɪk/ link) and velarization (e.g., the dark l [lˠ] or [ɫ] as in RP and General American peel [pʰiːɫ] link) happen in English. Another kind of coarticulation occurs commonly in Russian and Irish and is called palatalization. It is marked in IPA by a superscript j, e.g., [tʲ].


Ceci n'est pas un seing.
June 13, 2008, 06:28
goofy
Some languages have sounds that are doubly articulated. There are two simultaneous points of articulation, each with the same degree of stricture. Usually the points of articulation are velar and labial.

A ligature is used to show that the articulations are simultaneous. For instance Sherbro (West Africa) [g͡bi] "all" and [g͡baŋ] "hat"
June 13, 2008, 10:09
goofy
Sonorant consonants are also called approximants. Approximants have more constriction than a vowel, but without the frication of fricatives. With lateral approximants, the sides of the tongue are lowered, allowing air to flow on either side.

Lateral approximants:
/l/ alveolar lateral approximant: English lull
/ɭ/ retroflex lateral approximant: Tamil [tʃaɭi] "cold"
/ʎ/ palatal lateral approximant: Italian gli [ʎi] "to him"
/ʟ/ velar lateral approximant: Melpa [paʟa] "fence"

Lateral fricatives are made by restricting the airflow more than with laterals, but still allowing air to pass on either side of the tongue.
/ɬ/ voiceless lateral fricative: Welsh llan [ɬɑn] "church"
/ɮ/ voiced lateral fricative: Zulu [ɮala] "play"

Listen to laterals in Bura and Melpa.

Rhotic sounds have an r-like quality. They include English /ɹ/, and taps and trills. With taps, the articulators make brief contact, for instance in an alveolar tap, the front of the tongue briefly taps the alveolar ridge.
With trills, one articulator vibrates against the other. In an alveolar trill, the front of the tongue vibrates against the alveolar ridge.

/ɹ/ retroflex approximant: English red [ɹɛd] (some sources use [ɻ])
/ɾ̪/ dental tap: Spanish pero [peɾ̪o] "but"
/r̪/ dental trill: Spanish perro [per̪o] "dog"
/ʁ/ voiced uvular fricative: standard French roue [ʁu] "wheel"

In North American English, /t/ and /d/ are pronounced as an alveolar tap between vowels. This is called intervocalic alveolar flapping.
/ɾ/ alveolar tap: North American English butter [bʌɾɚ]

Listen to rhotics in French and Èdó.

Semivowels. Semivowels are also called glides. Phonetically they are not consonants because they have the same constriction as vowels. They are moving vowels which always occur next to another vowel. For instance with "yes" [jɛs] the tongue starts in the position for the vowel [i] and moves to the position for the vowel [ɛ].

/j/ voiced palatal approximant: English yes [jɛs]
/w/ voiced labial-velar approximant: English we [wi]
/ɥ/ voiced labial-palatal approximant: French huit [ɥit]

/w/ and /ɥ/ have a secondary articulation at the lips (the lips are rounded) so they are termed labial-velar and labial-palatal (or labialized velar and labialized palatal).

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
June 14, 2008, 10:57
neveu
Is there some kind of pattern in the symbols? While reading the above paragraph I realized that one of the difficulties I've had learning IPA is that I have to look up each character when I read a word. I have no idea where it is in the alphabet, so I'm reduced to doing a visual scan of a table or page for the shape of the symbol. I'm not good at this, so I end up having to check, on average, half the symbols until I find it.
June 14, 2008, 11:11
BobHale
quote:
Originally posted by neveu:
Is there some kind of pattern in the symbols? While reading the above paragraph I realized that one of the difficulties I've had learning IPA is that I have to look up each character when I read a word. I have no idea where it is in the alphabet, so I'm reduced to doing a visual scan of a table or page for the shape of the symbol. I'm not good at this, so I end up having to check, on average, half the symbols until I find it.


You just have to learn them. If I could do it it can't be that hard. And not all of them are needed for English anyway.


"No man but a blockhead ever wrote except for money." Samuel Johnson.

My current blog.
Photographs to accompany Anyone Can DO It available from www.lulu.com
My photoblog The World Through A lens
June 14, 2008, 11:35
neveu
Is there a list of English-only IPA symbols?
June 14, 2008, 16:02
goofy
here. There are lots and lots of vowels, since they are so variable across dialects.
June 15, 2008, 21:18
Kalleh
Wow. You have really provided a lot of sources here, and thank you.

I have read everything, clicking all the links. As a real novice to this, I wonder if you could recommend a text. I also would like to download some of the fonts to my computer (if my adminstrator will allow it), and I am confused about which would be best (which to me means "easiest.")

Thanks again for all your hard work.
June 16, 2008, 07:23
goofy
The most popular font is apparently Doulos SIL. I'd say just install that one.

I got some of this information from "Theoretical and Practical Phonetics" by Henry Rogers. It's a Canadian textbook, and has a chapters devoted to French and Canadian English.

But I'd actually recommend Peter Ladefoged's "A Course in Phonetics" if you're interested in phonetics.

The UCLA Phonetics Lab has a lot of information and sound files.
June 16, 2008, 08:04
zmježd
But I'd actually recommend Peter Ladefoged's "A Course in Phonetics" if you're interested in phonetics.

I'd second that recommendation. It's the textbook I used when I studied phonetics and phonology with Ladefoged's student John Ohala. (Of course, I used an earlier edition, I see it's up to the fifth, and the current one comes with a CD-ROM (link).)


Ceci n'est pas un seing.
June 16, 2008, 15:16
goofy
the vowel chart



Imagine the vowel chart as a cross section of the oral cavity, with the lips on the left. The position of each vowel symbol indicates the highest point of the tongue in the articulation of that vowel.

Vowels are classified by
height: the height of the tongue. High vowels are also called close vowels.
backness: the position of the tongue in relation to the back of the mouth, how front or back the tongue is in the mouth
roundedness: whether and how much the lips are rounded
nasalization: whether air also passes through the nasal cavity

Vowels are referenced using cardinal vowels. Cardinal vowels are those produced at the most extreme positions, for instance cardinal vowel [u] is produced with the tongue as close and back as possible. The vowel in English boot is transcribed with the symbol [u] because that cardinal vowel is closest to the English vowel.

Here are the vowels of North American English and their symbols.

/i/ close front unrounded: beet
/ɪ/ near-close near-front unrounded: bit
/eɪ/ or /ej/ close-mid front unrounded followed by a glide: bait
/ɛ/ open-mid front unrounded: bet
/æ/ near-open front unrounded: bat
/u/ close back rounded: boot
/ʊ/ near-close near-back rounded: book
/oʊ/ or /ow/ close-mid back rounded followed by a glide: boat
/ʌ/ open-mid back unrounded: but
/ɔ/ open-mid back rounded: law
/ɑ/ open back unrounded: father (in Canadian English, /ɔ/ and /ɑ/ have merged into /ɑ/. This is known as the cot-caught merger)
/ə/ mid central unrounded: about
/aʊ/ or /aw/: how
/aɪ/ or /aj/: high
/ɔɪ/ or /ɔj/: boy

The last 3 are diphthongs: a vowel followed by a semivowel. /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ are also diphthongs.

(Wikipedia uses /eɪ oʊ aʊ aɪ ɔɪ/ but I'm used to using /ej ow aw aj ɔj/. You could make arguments for either)

Other dialects have different vowels, as can be seen here.

Vowels in North American English are rhoticised when they are followed by /ɹ/. Rhotacised vowels, also known as R-coloured vowels, have a different quality than their non-rhotacised counterparts. A diacritic can be added to the symbol to indicate rhoticity: for instance [ɚ] indicates an R-coloured [ə]: the vowel in her.

Vowels are nasalized when the velum is lowered, allowing air to pass through the nasal cavity as well as through the oral cavity.
Nasalization is indicated with a tilde above the vowel symbol. In English, vowels are nasalized before nasal consonants: am [æ̃m], home [hõw̃m]
In Scots Gaelic, vowels are nasalized after nasal consonants: mac [mãxk] "son"
Some languages make a distinction between nasalized and non-nasalized vowels, for instance French:
mais [mɛ] "but"
main [mɛ̃] "hand"

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
June 16, 2008, 23:02
Kalleh
Well, I think I downloaded it, but I am not sure what to do with it now. I know this sounds really stupid, but where do I find it?

I will look for the book. However, I'd also like a linguistic book that contains a basic overview. Is there such a thing? Periodically I've looked for something like that in book stores, but I've never known what to buy.

To be honest, I don't think I'll ever get this. The nuances of sound seem so intricate.
June 17, 2008, 05:26
zmježd
I'd also like a linguistic book that contains a basic overview.

Ladefoged's textbook is for an upper-division, undergraduate, introductory course in phonetics.

I've suggested some intorductory books on language before, but here's a list:

Ferdinand de Saussure. A Course In General Linguistics.
Edward Sapir. Language.
Otto Jespersen. Language.
Leonard Bloomfield. Language.
Henry Hoenigswald. Language Change and Linguistic Reconstruction.
Robert Hall. Linguistics and Your Language. (Originally Leave Your Language Alone!)
Jean Aitchison. Language Change: Progress or Decay?
Ronald Wardhaugh. Proper English: Myths and Misunderstandings About English.

I've placed them roughly in their order of publication from the teens to the '90s of the last century. Some are still in print, but all may be found used online or at your favorite neighborhood bookstore. You can probably browse their tables of contents at Amazon, and, no doubt, find reviews of them there and elsewhere online. Most of them are aimed at a popular audience.


Ceci n'est pas un seing.
June 17, 2008, 06:18
goofy
quote:
Originally posted by Kalleh:
Well, I think I downloaded it, but I am not sure what to do with it now. I know this sounds really stupid, but where do I find it?


Do you mean the font? Maybe this tutorial will help.
June 18, 2008, 22:32
Kalleh
I downloaded it, and it said the download was complete. There's a little icon on my desktop, but I don't know where to find the actual fonts. I did look at the tutorial, and their dropdown box indicated they were using a juneicode font, which does not appear in my characters. Therefore, I am not sure if my download was complete.
June 19, 2008, 05:19
zmježd
There's a little icon on my desktop

What's the name on the icon? Specifically what is the file extension? (That is the part to the right of the period (full stop in UK).


Ceci n'est pas un seing.
June 19, 2008, 17:09
Kalleh
I feel so stupid about computers when I am posting on Wordcraft. Yet at work, people think I am one of the best. Nobody can believe I have a Blog, for instance. It's so strange.

Anyway, z, the name of it is: DoulosSIL, and when I click it, it's a WinZip that has 6 entries, including a pdf with 28 pages overviewing Doulos SIL font documentation. However, what I had expected was a way to post with those pronunciation fonts that some of you use. I wondered if it automatically is now a part of my Character Map. Probably not.
June 19, 2008, 19:55
zmježd
Well, one of the files should have a .ttf extension. After you extract that somewhere on your hard drive:

1. Choose Start Menu > Settings > Control Panel and double-click on the Fonts control. (Anyway that's what it used to be called; not sure about Windows XP or Vista.)

2. You'll see a window with a list of fonts you have installed on your machine.

3. Choose File > Install new font ...

4. In the lower left-hand corner, you'll see a file browser. Navigate to the place you unzipped the font to.

5. You will see a List of fonts in this directory.

6. Select the one to install.

7. Choose the OK button.

That should install the font.

I use the Character Map utility that comes with Windows to get at seldom used characters.

1. Choose Start Menu > Programs > Accessories > System Tools > Character Map menu item.

That'll start it.

3. Choose the Font you just installed in the Font dropdown.

4. Choose Group by Unicode subrange in the Group by dropdown.

That will pop up another little window to the right of the main one. Latin has all the characters in the extended Latin alphabet. Look at the other ones. There's Greek and Cyrillic, etc.

That's only if you're typing in something quick. There are different keyboards you can install and activate. For instance I have Slovak and Polytonic Greek keyboards installed and can choose them to type with. Mind you, you need to be familiar with the layout, but since Shu uses Dvorak, I think he can help you with that. For all I know the SIL may have a Windows keyboard you can install and use to make typing IPA easier, but since I'm not typesetting a graamar of some exotic language I haven't bothered to look into it.

(If you're still having problems, send me a PM, and I can walk you thru it over the phone.)


Ceci n'est pas un seing.
June 21, 2008, 18:40
Kalleh
Sorry I am such a mere mortal...but I have one question. Since I did find the Lucinda Sans Unicode font on my Character Map menu, do I still need to do actions 1-7 above? If so, what's the point of having the Lucinda Sans Unicode font?

Let's just say I will not be your easiest pupil!
June 23, 2008, 12:21
BobHale
In terms of the sounds I wonder if anyone will find this of help. Click on a symbol for the sound. It's nowhere near complete but the common English sounds are all there.

http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/try/resources/pronunciation/phonemic-chart


"No man but a blockhead ever wrote except for money." Samuel Johnson.

My current blog.
Photographs to accompany Anyone Can DO It available from www.lulu.com
My photoblog The World Through A lens
June 23, 2008, 12:34
zmježd
No, K., you can just got with that. It won't hurt I have both fonts installed. (I've been using the SIL Doulos one since the dark days before Unicode.)

Bob, nice little phoneme / sound chart.


Ceci n'est pas un seing.
June 23, 2008, 13:34
jerry thomas
[?]wondering ... Is "phoneme" abbreviation slang for 'telephoneme," as in "telephoneme in the morning and teleme ..."[/?]

(ITALIC accent)
June 23, 2008, 13:45
goofy
quote:
phoneme


A phoneme is a contrastive sound in a language. If we have two words that differ in only one sound (a minimal pair), then we have isolated two phonemes. For instance:
pat
bat
have different meanings and differ only in the initial sound. So /p/ and /b/ are phonemes in English.

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
June 24, 2008, 06:33
arnie
jerry,

Go sit in the corner, put on the dunce's cap, and write out 2,000 times:

I promise I will not make (bad) jokes in class in future.


Build a man a fire and he's warm for a day. Set a man on fire and he's warm for the rest of his life.
June 27, 2008, 09:31
goofy
An allophone is a variant of a phoneme. One phoneme can have different allophones depending on the environment. In other words, the same sound can sound different depending on its place in the word. For instance, if you hold your hand in front of your mouth and pronounce "stop" and "top", you can feel a puff of air with "top", but there is no puff of air with "stop".

To account for this, linguists have two different levels of representing sounds. The phonemic level represents the phonemes - the contrastive sounds in the language. So at the phonemic level, "stop" and "top" are transcribed as /stɑp/ and /tɑp/. (Phonemic transcriptions use slash brackets.)

The allophonic or phonetic level represents how the sounds are produced depending on their environment. At the allophonic level, "stop" and "top" can be transcribed as [stɑp] and [tʰɑp]. The superscript h respresents the fact that the /t/ of "top" is produced with aspiration (a "puff of air").

We say that phoneme /t/ has two allophones: [t] and [tʰ]. Their distribution is regular: /t/ is always aspirated initially in stressed syllables, and it is unaspirated elsewhere. (Allophonic or phonetic transcriptions use square brackets.)

We call unanalyzed sounds "phones" or "segments". A phone is the smallest unit of sound that can be transcribed with an IPA symbol. We use the term "phone" or "segment" when we don't know or it doesn't matter whether the sound is a phoneme or allophone.

Here's how some allophones of English are represented in the IPA.

/p/
plain [p] - after syllable-initial /s/, syllable initial in unstressed syllables, finally
spit [spɪt]
upper [ˡʌpɚ]
stop [stɑp]

aspirated [pʰ] - initially in stressed syllables
pit [pʰɪt]


/t/
plain [t] - after syllable-initial /s/, syllable initial in unstressed syllables, finally
stop [stɑp]
tobacco [təˈbækow]
write [ɹajt]

aspirated [tʰ] - initially in stressed syllables
top [tʰɑp]
entire [ənˈtʰajɹ]

unreleased or inaudible release [t̚] - finally, before another stop
write [ɹajt̚]
eight times [ejt̚ tajmz]

tap [ɾ] - at the beginning of non-initial unstressed syllables (North American English)
city [sɪɾi]
writer [ˈɹajɾɚ]

rounded retroflexed palato-alveolar affricate [ʈʂʷ] - before /ɹ/
tree [ʈʂʷɹi]
This sounds a lot like [tʃ].


/k/
plain [k] - after syllable-initial /s/, finally
skin [skɪn]
stack [stæk]

aspirated [kʰ] - initially in stressed syllables
kin [kʰɪn]


/l/
plain [l] - initially
lie [laj]

velarised [ɫ] - after a vowel, before a voiced consonant
lull [lʌɫ]
twelve [twɛɫv]
Velarisation is a secondary articulation. The back of the tongue is raised toward the velum at the same time as the /l/ is produced. This is also called "dark L".

syllabic velarised [ɫ̩] - finally after a consonant
table [tejbɫ̩]
A subscript stroke is used to represent a syllabic consonant.
In slow speech, table can be pronounced with a vowel in the second syllable: [tejbəɫ]. But in normal speech, the /l/ is syllabic - it forms its own syllable.

All this info is from "Theoretical and Practical Phonetics" by Henry Rogers.

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
June 27, 2008, 11:19
jerry thomas
Quoth arnie ...
quote:
I promise I will not make (bad) jokes in class in the future.



I promise ... I promise ...... ditto ditto
(there must be at least 293 ways to do this)
June 27, 2008, 14:05
goofy
I've updated my earlier posts with links to sound files for some of the non-English sounds, so you can hear what uvulars and pharyngeals sound like, for instance.
June 29, 2008, 18:17
Kalleh
The terminology is a killer! I realize that I'll have to download that SIL Doulos as I mostly see little squares in goofy's posts about phonemes.
July 02, 2008, 08:55
goofy
To expand on what zmježd wrote about secondary articulation above. Secondary articulation or coarticulation occurs when there are two simultaneous places of articulation. For instance, with a velarized alveolar lateral (the English dark L), the main place of articulation is alveolar - the tongue makes a closure with the alveolar ridge. And the secondary place of articulation is velar - The back of the tongue is raised up toward the velum at the same time.

Here are four kinds of secondary articulation.

Palatalization
The front (i.e., middle) of the tongue is raised toward the palatal region.
Palatalization is indicated with a superscript j.
Russian contrasts palatalized and non-palatalized consonants.
[sok] "juice"
[sʲok] "he lashed"
[mal] "little"
[mʲal] "crumple"

Listen to palatalized consonants in Russian.


Labialization
The lips are rounded.
Labialization is indicated with a superscript w.
In English, /ʃ, ʒ, tʃ, dʒ, ɹ/ are all labialized to some degree. We could transcribe them phonetically as [ʃʷ, ʒʷ, tʃʷ, dʒʷ, ɹʷ]
Bura (Pela dialect) constrasts labialized and non-labialized consonants.
[mara] "to carve"
[mʷanta] "to move"

Listen to labialized consonants in Bura.


Velarization
We've already seen velarization with English dark L [ɫ].
With velarization, the back of the tongue is raised toward the velum.
Velarization is indicated with a superscript ɣ (gamma), or with a tilde through the symbol. So English dark L could be transcribed as [ɫ] or [lˠ].
Scots Gaelic contrasts plain, velarized, and palatalized laterals.
plain [balə] "town"
velarized [baɫə] "ball, wall"
palatalized [kalʲɔx] "old woman"


Pharyngealization
The root of tongue is pulled back toward the pharyngeal wall.
Pharyngealization is represented with a superscript ʕ (but is sometimes represented with a tilde, the same as velarized consonants).
Arabic:
plain [suːs] "licorice"
pharyngealized [sˤuːsˤ] "chick"
plain [dal] "he pointed"
pharyngealized [dˤal] "he stayed"

Listen to pharyngealized consonants in Arabic.

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
July 02, 2008, 20:11
Kalleh
goofy, the links really help, though I can see that I am going to have to read this section several times before I learn it. I also need to do something so those specialized fonts show up. It's interesting because there's definitely an anatomy relationship to linguistics.
July 03, 2008, 08:42
goofy
I find it interesting that every part of the vocal tract has a dual function - it's used in speech and in eating or breathing. There is no part that is just used for speech or just used for eating or breathing afaik.


There are still more consonant symbols. I don't have sound files for all of these, but don't forget about this page where you can listen to almost every sound.

/ʍ/ voiceless labial-velar approximant
This a voiceless /w/. It found in some English dialects in words spelled with "wh".
[ʍɛn] when
[ʍɪtʃ] which
Most dialects have [wɛn] and [wɪtʃ] instead. The merger of /w/ and /ʍ/ into /w/ is called the wine-whine merger.


/ʋ/ labiodental approximant
like /v/, except that the lips do not touch the teeth so there is no friction. To English speakers it can sound like a cross between /v/ and /w/.
Hindi [ʋe] "they"
Hawaiian [ʋiki] "fast"


/ѵ/ labio-dental flap
This is a flap produced with the lower lip striking the upper teeth. It is mainly found in languages of central Africa.


/ʙ/ bilabial trill
The lips vibrate against each other.
Kele [ᵐʙulim] "face" (the superscript m indicates prenasalization: the trill has a short nasal onset.)
Bilabial trills in Kele and Titan


/ɕ/ voiceless alveolo-palatal fricative
/ʑ/ voiced alveolo-palatal fricative
These are similar to the palato-alveolars /ʃ/ and /ʒ/. Rogers says "They can be produced with the tip of the tongue behind the alveolar ridge and the blade quite close to the alveolar ridge back and to the forward part of the hard palate."
The distinction between alveolo-palatal and palato-alveolar is useful for some languages, like Polish. From Rogers:
[duʑi] "big" (masc. pers. nom. pl.)
[duʒi] "big" (masc. nom. sg.)

[lɛpɕi] "better" (masc. pers. nom. pl.)
[lɛpʃi] "better" (masc. nom. sg.)

Listen to examples in Polish.


/ʂ/ voiceless retroflex fricative
/ʐ/ voiced retroflex fricative
As with retroflex plosives, the underside of the tongue is curled up to touch the border of the alveolar ridge and the hard palate.
Malayalam [kaʂʈi] "scarce"
Mandarin [ʐou] "meat"

Some sources say that Polish has /ʂ ʐ/ instead of /ʃ ʒ/.


/ɧ/ voiceless palatal-velar fricative
this is traditionally described as a simultaneous /ʃ/ and /x/ (although this is disputed), and is only used for transcribing Swedish.
Swedish [ɧok] "chunk"

Listen to Swedish voiceless fricatives


/ɽ/ retroflex flap
The tip of the tongue flaps once against the postalveolar region or the hard palate.
Hindi [bəɽɑː] "big"


/ɺ/ alveolar lateral flap
This is like the Spanish /ɾ/ of pero, but it is also lateral, so the tongue does not make contact at the sides, allowing air to flow over the sides of the tongue.
Japanese [ɺiku] "land"


/ɱ/ labio-dental nasal plosive
This is like /m/, except that it is made with the lower lip touching the upper teeth. English speakers make it sometimes in words where /m/ is followed by /f/, like "symphony".


/ɰ/ velar approximant
like /w/ except that the lips are not rounded. /w/ is labio-velar - the lips are rounded while the back of tongue is raised towards the velum. /ɰ/ is velar only.
This sound is very similar to, and apparently alternates with, the voiced velar fricative /ɣ/ in Icelandic and Spanish.


/ɢ/ voiced uvular plosive
The voiced counterpart of /q/. It is apparently found in Inuktitut, Persian, and some dialects of Arabic.


/ʀ/ uvular trill
the uvula vibrates against the back of the tongue. (This is different from other trills, where it is the tongue that vibrates.) French and German sometimes have this instead of the voiced uvular fricative /ʁ/.


Epiglottal consonants
The epiglottis is a flap of tissue located above the vocal cords. It prevents food from entering the trachea when we swallow.

Traditionally, the epiglottis was not regarded as playing a part in speech. However, epiglottal consonants do exist.
/ʡ/ voiceless epiglottal plosive: Agul [jaʡar] "centers"
/ʢ/ voiced epiglottal fricative or approximant: Arabic [taʢaʃʃɐ] "to have supper" (some dialects)
/ʜ/ voiceless epiglottal fricative: Agul [mɛʜɛr] "wheys"

Listen to epiglottal consonants in Agul.


Dental consonants
The tip of the tongue touches the upper teeth.
To indicate dental consonants, a diacritic is placed under the symbol for the alveolar consonant.
/n̪/ voiced dental nasal: French non [n̪ɔ̃] "no"
/t̪/ voiceless dental plosive: French tu [t̪y] "you"
/d̪/ voiced dental plosive: French de [d̪ə] "of"

Malayalam contrasts dental and alveolar nasals.
[kən̪n̪u] "calf"
[kənni] "month"


Voiceless sonorants
Vowels and sonorant consonants are usually voiced. A ring underneath a symbol indicates that the sound is voiceless. Burmese contrasts voiced and voiceless sonorants.
[lɑʔ] "be bare"
[l̥ɑʔ] "uncover"

[mɑʔ] "be steep"
[m̥ɑ̃] "estimate"

Listen to voiceless nasals in Burmese.


Linguo-labial consonants
The tip of the tongue touches the upper lip. Linguo-labial consonants are transcribed with the symbol for the alveolar consonant plus a diacritic.
V'enen Taut (Big Nambas):
[t̼atei] "breadfruit"
[nən̼ək] "my tongue"
[nað̼ət] "stone"

Listen to linguo-labials in V'enen Taut.


more to come...

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
July 03, 2008, 19:40
Kalleh
I have a deadline for submitting a book chapter on Monday...after that I really must focus on getting my fonts straight so that I can understand what those little squares are.

Goofy, your post that every part of the vocal tract has a dual function made me search the Internet for some more information on that. I found this cool site; be sure to watch the video clips. I had no idea there was even a specialty called Voice Medicine.
July 09, 2008, 16:00
goofy
Very cool. The movies are slowed down so you can see the vocal folds vibrate.

More vowels!

First, you can listen to the vowels of BBC English and General American English.


/y/ close front rounded vowel
This is like /i/ (as in beet), but the lips are rounded
French tu [ty] "you"

/ʏ/ near-close near-front rounded vowel
This is like /ɪ/ (as in bit) but the lips are rounded
German Bütten [bʏtən] "tubs"

/ø/ close-mid front rounded vowel
like /e/ but the lips are rounded
French feu [fø] "fire"
German böten [bøːtən] "offered" (subjunctive)

/œ/ open-mid front rounded vowel
like /ɛ/ (as in egg) but the lips are rounded
French oeuf [œf] "egg"
German Böttingen [bœtiŋən]

Listen to front rounded vowels in French, German, Dutch, Norwegian and Turkish.

/ɯ/ close back unrounded vowel
like /u/ but the lips are unrounded
Vietnamese [tɯ] "fourth"

/ɤ/ close-mid back unrounded vowel
like /o/ but the lips are unrounded
Vietnamese [tɤ] "silk"

Listen to vowels in Vietnamese.

/ɨ/ high central unrounded vowel
produced further back than /i/ but not as far back as /ɯ/
Russian [bɨl] "he was"

/ʉ/ high central rounded vowel
produced further back than /y/ but not as far back as /u/
Scots English [gʉd] "good"

/a/ open front unrounded vowel
German Rat [ʀaːt] "advice"

/ɐ/ near open central vowel
RP English [nɐt] "nut"

/ɒ/ open back rounded vowel
like /ɑ/ (as in father) but rounded
RP English [sɒft] "soft"
July 11, 2008, 10:41
goofy
Phonation and airstream mechanisms

I find this area very interesting, so I've written a lot about it, probably more than you want to know.

Phonation refers to how the vocal cords are adjusted. Voicing and voicelessness are two kinds of phonation, but there are others, for instance breathy voice and creaky voice.

Airstream mechanism refers to how the airflow is initiated. Most speech sounds are pulmonic egressive - they are created by forcing air out of the lungs. With ejectives, implosives and clicks, the airflow is initiated in other ways.


Breathy voice
With voiced sounds, the vocal cords are vibrating and held tightly together. With breathy voice, also called murmur, the vocal cords are vibrating, but they are held slightly apart.
Breathy voice is indicated with two dots under the symbol.
Hindi contrasts four kinds of plosives: voiceless, voiceless aspirated, voiced, and breathy voice (commonly called "voiced aspirated").
voiceless [pal] "take care of"
voiceless aspirated [pʰal] "knife blade"
voiced [bal] "hair"
breathy voice [b̤ʱal] "forehead"
Listen to breathy voice phones in Hindi, Marathi, Gujarati and Tsonga.

/ɦ/ voiced glottal fricative
Phonetically, this sound is breathy voiced. English /h/ is realized as [ɦ] in between vowels, for instance ahead [əˈɦɛd].
The Hindi breathy voiced plosives have a breathy voice aspiration, represented by a superscript ɦ, as in [b̤ʱal] "forehead".


Creaky voice
With creaky voice, also called laryngealization, the vocal cords are tightly closed and vibrate irregularly. The result is a low-pitched vibration. It has been described as similar to the sound a stick makes when run along a picket fence. Some RP English speakers trail off sentences with creaky voice.
Creaky voice is indicated with a tilde under the symbol.
Mazatec contrasts creaky voice and breathy voice.
creaky voice [ndæ̰] "buttocks"
breathy voice [ndæ̤] "horse"


Ejectives
Ejective consonants are produced using a glottalic egressive airstream mechanism. Instead of the air being forced out of the lungs, which is what happens with most speech sounds, the vocal cords are closed and raised, so the air column is pushed upward, creating a high pressure before the consonant is released. Ejective fricatives and affricates are also possible.
Ejectives are transcribed with the symbol for the voiceless consonant plus a diacritic.
Quechua:
[tʼanta] "bread"
[wisqʼaj] "to close"
Amharic:
[sʼəɡɡɑ] "grace"
[mətʃʼ] "one who comes"
Listen to ejectives in Quechua, K'ekchi, and Navajo.


Implosives
Implosives are produced by moving the larynx downwards. Normally, voicing occurs when air is pushed upwards through the glottis. With implosives, the glottis is pushed downwards through the air.
Implosives are transcribed with modified symbols for the voiced plosives: /ɓ ɗ ʄ ɠ ʛ/.
Sindhi:
voiced [banu] "forest"
implosive [ɓani] "field"
voiced [guɳu] "quality"
implosive [ɠanu] "handle"
Listen to implosives in Sindhi. (This data includes a retroflex implosive (for "festival"), the symbol for which (ᶑ) is not part of the IPA. Wikipedia claims that this sound has not been confirmed in any language.)


Click consonants
Click consonants are produced with a velaric ingressive airstream mechanism. A closure is made by the back of the tongue and the velum, and a simultaneous closure is made further forward in the mouth, for instance the tip of the tongue and the teeth. Then the back of the tongue is pulled down, enlarging the cavity and thus lowering the air pressure inside the oral cavity. When the forward closure is released (in this case, the tip of the tongue is then pulled back from the teeth), air flows in. The resulting sound is a click.

Symbols for the click consonants are categorized according to where the forward closure is made.
/ʘ/ bilabial click: !Xóõ [ʘaa] "child"
/ǀ/ dental click: Xhosa [ukukǀola] "to grind fine"
/ǁ/ alveolar lateral click: Xhosa [ukǁolo] "peace"
/ǂ/ palatoalveolar click: Nama [kǂais] "calling"
/ǃ/ (post)alveolar click: Xhosa [ukukǃoɓa] "to break stones"

Click consonants as phonemes are found only in the languages of southern Africa. Languages with clicks tend to have a lot of them. Xhosa has 3 places of articulation for its clicks. Each click is accompanied by one of 4 secondary articulations, for a total of 15 click sounds. Listen to clicks in Xhosa, Nama, Zhuǀhõasi and Zulu.

The award for the language with the most click sounds seems to go to !Xóõ. !Xóõ has 5 places of articulation for its clicks, most of which are accompanied by one of 17 possible secondary articulations, making a total of 83 click sounds.

We make clicks in English, although they do not function as phonemes. A kiss is a bilabial click. We make a dental click, written as "tsk-tsk", to indicate displeasure or concern.

This message has been edited. Last edited by: goofy,
July 17, 2008, 13:54
Kalleh
I know you're supposed to keep up with courses, but I am at this conference and only have about an hour a day for all my computer work. I'll catch up this weekend.
July 17, 2008, 14:45
goofy
I had some free time to write this, but I know that not everyone does. Think of it as a reference for the future rather than homework.
January 18, 2017, 19:12
goofy
The UCLA Phonetics Lab Data URL has changed.
January 28, 2017, 05:33
Geoff
quote:
The award for the language with the most click sounds seems to go to !Xóõ. !Xóõ has 5 places of articulation for its clicks, most of which are accompanied by one of 17 possible secondary articulations, making a total of 83 click sounds.


Did Victor Borge visit Botswana prior to developing his "phonetic punctuation" comedy routine?